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#1 User is offline   Shindai Warrior 

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Posted 06 February 2012 - 09:04 PM

C.K. could you please explain your view on the necessary connection between koryu and the moral component of Judo?
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#2 User is offline   NBK 

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Posted 06 February 2012 - 11:41 PM

I am reading a lot these days from Tomiki Kenji sensei, and pre-WWII budo history and he addresses this very directly. Even developed a series of charts to diagram it. This might be a good thread to introduce it; maybe I'll post a couple of his comments.

Essentially he says the connection is zero. While koryu bujutsu training was part of the education of samurai, there was no direct moral component. There was certainly a moral component in samurai education, but it does not help to conflate the multiple threads. There is one marvelous, complicated chart that shows how the physical and moral aspects combine into 'budo', but clearly the koryu is left out.

He develops, over time, a series of terms that help to clarify the stages of the development of budo, and in his later days uses them effectively to differentiate between budo, postwar 'competitive budo', and the koryu.

More later... time for another plane.




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#3 User is offline   Cichorei Kano 

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Posted 07 February 2012 - 01:45 AM

View PostShindai Warrior, on 07 February 2012 - 06:04 AM, said:

C.K. could you please explain your view on the necessary connection between koryu and the moral component of Judo?


Easy question, difficult and vast response ...

I have to keep this simply since I am addressing some of that in work I am currently preparing for publication, and because it is a vast topic.

As you likely know, Kanô defined three objectives for jûdô:

1. jûdô taiiku-hô (method of physical education)
2. Jûdô shobu-hô (method of combat)
3. Jûdô shûshin-hô (method of moral development)

#3 is also the most important. (Kanô later according to some notes developed a 4th level, but this is not generally mentioned in Kôdôkan publication, and I am not elaborating further on this because of conflicts with other work I am preparing).

Kanô talks about this third component at length during the 1898 Butokukai lecture (the same one I referred to in the post I wrote about newaza).

It is commonly known that Kanô studied two unarmed koryû, Kitô-ryû jûjutsu and Tenjin shinyô-ryû jûjutsu. However, Kanô also studied two weapons arts (this, like many other things has been excluded from Kôdôkan-crafted publications) though he never achieved mastership in them (can't elaborate on this now).

Jûdô's moral system, perhaps more than the physical education and combat component, underline that it was really intended as a form of education. In fact, Kanô in that lecture provides the specific example that someone who wins in jûdô should not be proud, and someone who loses should not be discouraged and give up. Particularly the first part of that statement is rather different from many modern forms of combat, of if one wants, of sport in general. This should not be misconstrued as a criticism of other contemporary combat forms since they have not claimed to have any objective outside of winning and be the best. Rather it is a concern about how jûdô has become misunderstood (as conceived by its founder), though, no doubt, some will say it 'evolved'. The deviation from the ideas of the founder is not the consequence of a natural evolution, but of deliberate political alterations.

There even exists an English reference of some of this stuff, namely Kanô Jigorô: Judo as physical mental culture. Japan Advertiser 29 Jul 1922, last column. It's a proceeding from a lecture by Kanô held during an early July 1922 meeting of the Asian Society at the British Embassy.

What fascinated Kanō particularly was balance, harmony, or the Japanese 和. Every Japanese knows that the Japanese ‘wa’ although it means ‘harmony’ is a very loaded character. One who understands classical Japanese and historical grammar of Japanese, knows that Japan was not originally called Japan or Nippon, but ‘Wa’ or “The land of Wa”. Originally, the character in use was 倭. In Chinese it is pronounced wei and its primitive meaning joins the ideograph for woman with food in the sense or wheat or grain. Basically, having a woman and food are basic needs in a primitive society for a harmonious life of happiness. It is still used in the 7th century Nihonshoki, which is understandable since the Japanese writing was imported from China only a century earlier. Later the Japanese writing and Chinese writing started to develop according to their own nature, and it was considered improper to write Wa like that. The character 和 became standard. Those who know something about Japanese history also know that the term Yamato uses the same character. Yamato too is an old name of Japan. In any case, there is a very strong cultural historic meaning in Japan of the word for balance and harmony, and Taoism philosophically underpins it.

As Kanō’s views matured, he started to summarize this in 和 or Wa between three things:

用 and 健 and 強, that is yō, ken and kyō, or ‘usefulness’ (in the widest application), health, and strength.

Kanō emphasized 道徳 ("the virtue of the Way"), which he makes clear, needs to be cultivated by 知的 (chiteki or intellectual learning) rather than by 情的 (jôteki or sensing). This means that your morality must be learnt, and does not readily emerge from your feeling; how you feel is secondary to that what you must learn. Thus, it is pretty much a definition of … “moral discipline”. He argues that 道徳 must be layered over 習慣的 (shûkanteki or habits) or that what you normally do. This may sound in contradiction with Mu’i or wuwei 無為, the taoist principle of non-action. It is not. Though in taoism or in zenbuddhism ‘striving’ is considered negative, it is clear that we need training and discipline even to become natural again.

Jūdō is about educating yourself, embracing that education, and accept that you have nothing to grab in yourself at this stage that will provide you with the answers. Accept your absence of knowledge. Winning competitions is a tip of the veil; as you can clearly see, there is a very large intellectual component to jūdō, and it is not even easy. If fighting was the only purpose, we should all quit jûdô, especially when MMA-ers and BJJ-ers defeat Olympic medal jûdôka, and not even with great difficulty. If that sporty aspect would be the only thing or the main purpose of jûdô, why even stay in jûdô ?

Kanō-shihan in crafting the moral message of jûdô found help in the concept of bushidō. Morality and harmony were highly regarded valued there. Bunbu ichi 文武一, or the oneness of sword and brush is a nice example of harmony, and concepts such as 信 (shin; trust & fidelity) and 義理 (giri: duty) illustrate some of the moral values of bushidō [Note: a number of chiefly North-American authors have recently argued that Bushidô would be an artificial construct; most European scholars hold a different view; so do I. I am not further elaborating on this issue here, as it is a tangent which I do not consider of immediate relevance. For example, people can base theories, views or even their life on religion too; that is irrelevant of the fact whether the eventual deity or God they worship factually or historically exists or not]. Bushidō was closely linked with iaijutsu and kenjutsu, both dangerous weapons arts, but still the physical training part of budō provided an interesting perk.

As Kanō matured and started to understand his own learnings in budō better, in particularly the theories of Kitō-ryū he found what he was looking for. Harmony is crucial in Kitō-ryū. Moreover, Kitō-ryū perfectly illustrates how harmony, and flow lead to energy an power. Kitō-ryū grabs to Taoist principles, and water serves as an excellent example to illustrate these matters.

When Kanô in 1911 wrote his first and most extensive book, it was entirely about morality, and perhaps surprisingly, not about jûdô at all. Instead he devoted an entire book to how educating a young man so that he becomes a moral and ethical human being. Jûdô would be a vehicle to achieve this morality, in Kanôs idealistic vision.

Let's not forget that one of the texts that was crucial to Kanō’s theory, was Spencer’s "Education: intellectual, moral and physical" dates from 1861, a year after Kanō was born. This is no surprise, as I have said many times before the understanding in the West of Kanô as the 'creator' of jûdô is wrong, that is to say, that in Japanese, and Chinese, the term 'creator' does not necessarily imply original author, but often alludes to putting things together, collecting things, really compiling. It was common in China and Japan, to take parts from others, bundle them together and put your own name on them. This was not considered misconduct or plagiarism, and one in this way was considered 'creator' or 'founder'. It is completely unfathomable that Kanô as a kid of just 22 years would have 'originally' conceived so many of the things that later were erroneously attributed to Kôdôkan jûdô as original invention. Obviously Kanô's views evolved and he matured, and jûdô would become a system in itself. Since the Kôdôkan has always written about Kanô in a hagiographic way rather than in a scientific critical analytical way, they have pretty much succeeded in essentially keeping much crucial information that would facilitate people's grasp of jûdô away. This is particularly so with regard to critical approaches to jûdô. There have been many. Oda Jôin was one of them, but another one and crucial to the present discourse, was Sakuraba. Sakuraba, much like myself, heavily criticized the Kôdôkan already then, for deviating from Kanô's an jûdô's original views and purpose. To some extent he criticized the lack of control Kanô had over what went on, and how others such as the politics that went on in the Kôdôkan increasingly started using jûdô for different purposes. It's actually very similar to my and others' crticicism on how, for example, the IJF has come to violate and prostitute what jûdô is about.

Kanô then attempts to find a solution in bujutsu and koryû, but this is not to be understood as he advocating that jûdô should become or be replaced by an art of killing, with the rest being only incidental. Rather his vision changes in that koryû and budô really should be and actually are a part of jûdô.

This will likely cause some confusion to readers. As most of you know, particularly from Draeger's 1970s work, jûdô just like other dô arts like karatedô or aikidô are all forms of budô, and distinguish themselves from bujutsu or bugei forms (the term koryû was less common then) such as iaijutsu, kenjutsu or jûjutsu. Indeed academically or scientifically this is correct, but it is different from how Kanô's philosophical understanding and intentions were developing.

Kanô started to see jûdô as an overall system that bridged many things. Like physical education (taiiku-hô) and shobu-hô (combat) were parts of jûdô, it is not that hard to understand how in his view also forms of budô like several koryû should be part of jûdô.

That integration of other things into jûdô and considering jûdô as the encompassing art, or literally education is not limited to koryû. For example Kanô writes about boxing: "... As for the comparison between boxing and judo-well, boxing is a part of our judo. In other words, our judo contains in some measure tbose elements of boxing which I may call tbe fighting side. Tbe only difference is that in boxing the fighting side occupies tbe whole field, while in judo it constitutes only one side. In iudo, we do not attach too much importance to fighting." (...) (Kanô Jigorô: The Principles of Jûjutsu. The Oriental Economic Review l3, 4: 244-248, Feb 1913; see p. 247).

In 1918 Kanô planned on integrating kendô and Jûdô into one system. He also wanted to include sôjutsu (spearfighting) and naginata-jutsu (halberd fighting) and kyûjutsu (bow & arrow) into jûdô. The same applies to kenjutsu and bôjutsu, but since these two according to Kanô were already integrated in kendô, he felt he could do so by incorporating kendô into jûdô. Some koryû advocates may wonder here how bôjutsu is part of kendô. This is somewhat confusing because often times when Kanô uses the term bôjutsu, he actually means jôjutsu, and not the long staff handled by both hands. Of course purists will say that jôjutsu is not kendô either. However, since kendô is not practised with a real sword and both kendô and jô use a wooden device of similar length ('similar' again has to be considered within reason and not in a purist mathematical way), Kanô felt they were close enough to consider them integrated. In any case, let's not get stuck on a tangent, point is that by the early 1920s some koryû was taught at the Kôdôkan, an in a thread from several years ago I think I provided pictures of jô training at the Kôdôkan. In March 1926, kanô formally established a Research Lab in Martial Arts, which was to facilitate the integration of those arts in jûdô.

In 1922 Kanô had already watched a demonstration by Funakoshi, and in 1911 karateka had even visited Kanô's dôjô to practice some joint techniques. OK, karate is not koryû, but it explains the interest of Kanô.

There were considerable attempts to realize this, and as we know Kanô himself founded one of the martial arts research organizations (1926). When Shoriki Matsutarô, a millionaire, later gifted a huge sum of money to the Kôdôkan to erect the new building it was with specifically in mind the realization of that specific part of Kanô's ideas. What happened, is that basically the Kôdôkan took his money and then refused, which as can be expected led to a huge row. The compromise that was finally reached (though some argue that it wasn't a real compromise, but worse ...) was the creation of the Nippon Budôkan (which would become home to several koryû) and a posthumous promotion to 10th dan ...

Whether Kanô's real motives for integration of koryû were as he claimed is not absolutely certain. There are suspicions it may also have been part of a marketing trick which Kanô was known to have used several times during his life to secure the rise to power of the Kôdôkan. That other motive might have been the threat which Kanô's system felt from aikidô. Kanô's visit to Ueshiba occurred in 1930. This was 4 years later than his creation of the Lab for Martial Arts, but what exactly that means can't be established with absolute certainty. It may be that Kanô already had concerns about aikidô's increasing popularity years before he met Ueshiba, and it maybe that he didn't when he established the lab, but that his meeting with Ueshiba accelerated or expanded his plans. In any case, it is quite striking that aikidô did exactly that what Kanô planned, i.e. integrating kendô and jô, with aikiken and aikijô, while jûdô as it has been delivered to us still contains only a incidental excursions with weapons, and in doing so has raised the scrutiny of koryû experts because of the clumsy handling of weapons. There is a lot more to write about this or other links with weapons systems or about relevant personalities, such as for example about Sugino Yoshio who too once was a Kôdôkan jûdôka.

This may not directly clarify the entire link between Kanô's interest in koryû and the moral dimension of jûdô. But a certain sportification away from the other components of jûdô did already occur during Kanô's life. This is a difficult debate as people will often claim that Kanô's role in this was dubious, since he was seen refereeing matches of jûdô during one of his visits to the US, and the Tenran Shiai and other contests clearly existed with his approval. Still, the real essence here, is not that shiai is the same as sports, but that shiai was an essential phase in developing one's combat skills in jûdô, but is not at all its goal, and only a stage, not even a stage of mastership. However, others pushed for a continuing sportification, which koryû clearly was not, hence increasing the attention for koryû could provide a more solid link to keeping or developing the moral dimension in jûdô beyond the stage of shiai. Maybe, even if Kanô in time would fail to keep the competition part of jûdô limited, the creation of a large new dimension (koryû) might cause so much attraction to potential jûdô enthusiasts (a bit like what they have done the past few years with kata competitions, which also attract a huge enthusiasm from people who because of their age or commitment or skills or choice are not active in the ordinary shiai circuit) that it would keep jûdô in balance. After all, one's career in jûdô shiai is limited by time, as caused by the effects of age. No such limits exist for furthering one's education in jûdô or one's development or morality.

There have been some attempts to bring the moral education part of jûdô back to the attention, such as for example the 2008 International Budo Symposium at Kanoya, Kagoshima, but these attempts are cautious and often reflect an only cursory insight of the literature and non-critical analytical facts. Thus such work often focuses on clichés like rei and bowing in jûdô, which really is something you find in about every jûdô book including the most populistic Western jûdô books. Alternatively, there is some easily accessible work (though only the Abstract is in English) such as Maebashi Kyokazu's Study of budô as education. School Education 15: 37-43, 1992.

I understand that I have lifted only the tip of the veil here but as I pointed out this is a huge topic, and it is not physically possible for me to devote more attention to it that would cause lengthy elaborations. I do hope that it touches upon your interests in jûdô and should you wish to explore yourself some of this, I provided a few references throughout the text. You might also find some occasional thoughts expressed in few more serious books on jûdô. For those interested in Kanô writing about bôjutsu, the reference is Jûdô from 1935. For Kanô writing about the different stages in jûdô education, the reference in the original Japanese is Jûdô from 1918. For those interested in Sakuraba's critical view, they are partly in Jûdô shiko from 1935 (Japanese language), and for those interested in some of the really critical analysis and debunking of several Kôdôkan myths Kudô Raisuke remains an important reference.

This post has been edited by Cichorei Kano: 07 February 2012 - 03:04 AM

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#4 User is offline   Ragster 

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Posted 18 February 2012 - 08:57 PM

Fascinating glimpse, C.K.

I trust, when this publication, of which you speak, is ready, details will be made available?
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#5 User is offline   CClark 

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Posted 20 February 2012 - 09:42 PM

Looking forward to this publication news as well... :mellow:
C. Clark
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#6 User is offline   Patrick M. Hausen 

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Posted 23 February 2012 - 05:40 PM

Dear CK Sensei,

thanks for that wonderful elaborate article. I have one question about this citation:

Quote

There even exists an English reference of some of this stuff, namely Kanô Jigorô: Judo as physical mental culture. Japan Advertiser 29 Jul 1922, last column. It's a proceeding from a lecture by Kanô held during an early July 1922 meeting of the Asian Society at the British Embassy.

Could you please confirm or deny that this

http://www.fusionmma...f-self-defense/

is indeed the English proceeding you refer to? Although the title does not match, it claims to be from the Japan Advertiser in the footer.

Thanks a lot,
Patrick
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#7 User is offline   Cichorei Kano 

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Posted 23 February 2012 - 06:02 PM

View PostPatrick M. Hausen, on 24 February 2012 - 02:40 AM, said:

Dear CK Sensei,

thanks for that wonderful elaborate article. I have one question about this citation:


Could you please confirm or deny that this

http://www.fusionmma...f-self-defense/

is indeed the English proceeding you refer to? Although the title does not match, it claims to be from the Japan Advertiser in the footer.

Thanks a lot,
Patrick


Yes, it is, but titles and subtitles were omitted which have made the version on that website less readable than the original.
"The world is a republic of mediocrities, and always was." (Thomas Carlyle)
"Nothing is as approved as mediocrity, the majority has established it and it fixes it fangs on whatever gets beyond it either way." (Blaise Pascal)
"Quand on essaie, c'est difficile. Quand on n'essaie pas, c'est impossible" (Guess Who ?)
"I am never wrong. Once I thought I was, and that was a mistake."
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